Bibliography

7. Bibliography

[1]

Penelope Muse Abernathy. News Deserts and Ghost Newspapers: Will Local News Survive. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 2020.

[2]

Alberto Acerbi. Cultural Evolution in the Digital Age. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2020. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198835943.001.0001.

[3]

Christopher H. Achen and Larry M. Bartels. Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2016.

[4]

Sheetal D. Agarwal and Michael L. Barthel. The friendly barbarians: professional norms and work routines of online journalists in the united states. Journalism, 16(3):376–391, 2015. doi:10.1177/1464884913511565.

[5]

Jennifer Allen, Baird Howland, Markus Mobius, David Rothschild, and Duncan J. Watts. Evaluating the fake news problem at the scale of the information ecosystem. Science Advances, 6(14):eaay3539, 2020. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay3539.

[6]

Martin Fredriksson Almqvist. Piracy and the politics of social media. Social Sciences, 5(3):41, 2016. doi:10.3390/socsci5030041.

[7]

Jisun An, Haewoon Kwak, Oliver Posegga, and Andreas Jungherr. Political discussions in homogeneous and cross-cutting communication spaces. In Jürgen Pfeffer, Ceren Budak, Yu-Ru Lin, and Fred Morstatter, editors, ICWSM 2019: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, pages 68–79. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), Menlo Park, 2019.

[8]

Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso, London, revised edition, 2016.

[9]

Joshua D. Angrist and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. The credibility revolution in empirical economics: how better research design is taking the con out of econometrics. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2):3–30, 2010. doi:10.1257/jep.24.2.3.

[10]

Stephen Ansolabehere and Eitan Hersh. Voter registration: the process and quality of lists. In Barry C. Burden and Charles Stewart III, editors, The Measure of American Elections, pages 61–90. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107589117.003.

[11]

Nick Anstead. Data-driven campaigning in the 2015 United Kingdom General Election. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 22(3):294–313, 2017. doi:10.1177/1940161217706163.

[12]

Nick Anstead and Ben O'Loughlin. Social media analysis and public opinion: the 2010 UK General Election. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(2):204–220, 2015. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12102.

[13]

Ken Auletta. Googled: The End of the World as We Know It. The Penguin Press, New York, 2009.

[14]

Ken Auletta. Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business (and Everything Else). Penguin Press, New York, 2018.

[15]

Brooke Auxier and Monica Anderson. Social Media Use in 2021. Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, 2021. URL: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/04/07/social-media-use-in-2021/.

[16]

Christopher A. Bail, Lisa P. Argyle, Taylor W. Brown, John P. Bumpus, Haohan Chen, M.B. Fallin Hunzaker, Jaemin Lee, Marcus Mann, Friedolin Merhout, and Alexander Volfovsky. Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarization. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(37):9216–9221, 2018. doi:10.1073/pnas.1804840115.

[17]

Jessica Baldwin-Philippi. The myths of data-driven campaigning. Political Communication, 34(4):627–633, 2017. doi:10.1080/10584609.2017.1372999.

[18]

Jessica Baldwin-Philippi. Data campaigning: between empirics and assumptions. Internet Policy Review, 8(4):1–18, 2019. doi:10.14763/2019.4.1437.

[19]

Jessica Baldwin-Philippi. Data ops, objectivity, and outsiders: journalistic coverage of data campaigning. Political Communication, 37(4):468–487, 2020. doi:10.1080/10584609.2020.1723751.

[20]

Matthew Ball. The Metaverse: And How It Will Revolutionize Everything. Liveright Publishing Corporation, New York, 2022.

[21]

Pablo Barberá. Birds of the same feather tweet together: bayesian ideal point estimation using Twitter data. Political Analysis, 23(1):76–91, 2015. doi:10.1093/pan/mpu011.

[22]

Pablo Barberá, Amber E. Boydstun, Suzanna Linn, Ryan McMahon, and Jonathan Nagler. Automated text classification of news articles: a practical guide. Political Analysis, 29(1):19–42, 2021. doi:10.1017/pan.2020.8.

[23]

Rosaline S. Barbour. Quality of data analysis. In Uwe Flick, editor, The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis, pages 496–510. SAGE, London, 2014. doi:10.4135/9781446282243.n34.

[24]

Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron. The californian ideology. Mute, 1995. URL: https://www.metamute.org/editorial/articles/californian-ideology.

[25]

John Perry Barlow. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation, San Francisco, CA, 1996. URL: https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence.

[26]

Solon Barocas and Andrew D. Selbst. Big data's disparate impact. California Law Review, 104:671–732, 2016. doi:10.15779/Z38BG31.

[27]

Alexander T. J. Barron, Jenny Huang, Rebecca L. Spang, and Simon DeDeo. Individuals, institutions, and innovation in the debates of the french revolution. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(18):4607–4612, 2018. doi:10.1073/pnas.1717729115.

[28]

Frank R. Baumgartner, Suzanna De Boef, and Amber E. Boydstun. The Decline of the Death Penalty and the Discovery of Innocence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511790638.

[29]

Nancy Baym, Rachel Bergmann, Raj Bhargava, Fernando Diaz, Tarleton Gillespie, David Hesmondhalgh, Elena Maris, and Christopher Persaud. Making sense of metrics in the music industries. International Journal of Communication, 15:3418–3441, 2021.

[30]

Nicholas Beauchamp. Predicting and interpolating state-level polling using Twitter textual data. American Journal of Political Science, 61(2):490–503, 2017. doi:10.1111/ajps.12274.

[31]

John Beieler, Patrick T. Brandt, Andrew Halterman, Philip A. Schrodt, and Erin M. Simpson. Generating political event data in near real time. In R. Michael Alvarez, editor, Computational Social Science: Discovery and Prediction, pages 98–120. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2016. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316257340.005.

[32]

Benjamin Bengfort, Rebecca Bilbro, and Tony Ojeda. Applied Text Analysis with Python: Enabling Language Aware Data Products with Machine Learning. O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA, 2018.

[33]

James Beniger. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989.

[34]

Yochai Benkler. The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2006.

[35]

Yochai Benkler. The Penguin and the Leviathan: how cooperation triumphs over self-interest. Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2011.

[36]

W. Lance Bennett. Towards a theory of press-state relations in the US. Journal of Communication, 40(2):103–125, 1990. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1990.tb02265.x.

[37]

W. Lance Bennett. Beyond pseudoevents: election news as reality tv. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(3):364–378, 2005. doi:10.1177/0002764205280919.

[38]

W. Lance Bennett. News: The Politics of Illusion. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 10 edition, 2016.

[39]

W. Lance Bennett and Steven Livingston. The disinformation order: disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European Journal of Communication, 33(2):122–139, 2018. doi:10.1177/0267323118760317.

[40]

W. Lance Bennett and Jarol B. Manheim. The one-step flow of communication. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 608(1):213–232, 2006. doi:10.1177/0002716206292266.

[41]

W. Lance Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg. The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139198752.

[42]

Kenneth Benoit. Text as data: an overview. In Luigi Cuirini and Robert Franzese, editors, The SAGE Handbook of Research Methods in Political Science and International Relations, pages 461–497. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2020. doi:10.4135/9781526486387.n29.

[43]

Kenneth Benoit, Kohei Watanabe, Haiyan Wang, Paul Nulty, Adam Obeng, Stefan Müller, and Akitaka Matsuo. Quanteda: an R package for the quantitative analysis of textual data. Journal of Open Source Software, 3(30):1–4, 2018. doi:10.21105/joss.00774.

[44]

Rodney Benson. Shaping Immigration News: A French-American Comparison. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139034326.

[45]

Mark Bergen. Like, Comment, Subscribe: Inside YouTube's Chaotic Rise to World Domination. Viking, New York, 2022.

[46]

Bruce Bimber. Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511615573.

[47]

Fischer Black. Toward a fully automated stock exchange, part i. Financial Analysts Journal, 27(4):28–35, 1971. doi:10.2469/faj.v27.n4.28.

[48]

Fischer Black. Toward a fully automated stock exchange, part ii. Financial Analysts Journal, 27(6):24–28, 1971. doi:10.2469/faj.v27.n6.24.

[49]

David M. Blei and John D. Lafferty. A correlated topic model of Science. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 1(1):17–35, 2007. doi:10.1214/07-AOAS114.

[50]

David M. Blei, Andrew Y. Ng, and Michael I. Jordan. Latent dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:993–1022, 2003.

[51]

Robin Boast. The Machine in the Ghost: Digitality and its Consequences. Reaktion Books, London, 2017.

[52]

Pablo J. Boczkowski and Zizi A. Papacharissi. Trump and the Media. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2018.

[53]

Tolga Bolukbasi, Kai-Wei Chang, James Zou, Venkatesh Saligrama, and Adam Kalai. Man is to computer programmer as woman is to homemaker? Debiasing word embeddings. In Daniel D. Lee, Ulrike von Luxburg, Roman Garnett, Masashi Sugiyama, and Isabelle Guyon, editors, NIPS'16: Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 4356–4364. Curran Associates Inc., Red Hook, NY, 2016. doi:10.5555/3157382.3157584.

[54]

Becky Bond and Zack Exley. Rules for Revolutionaries: How Big Organizing Can Change Everything. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, VT, 2016.

[55]

Alexander Bor and Michael Bang Petersen. The psychology of online political hostility: a comprehensive, cross-national test of the mismatch hypothesis. American Political Science Review, 116(1):1–18, 2022. doi:10.1017/S0003055421000885.

[56]

Frederik J. Zuiderveen Borgesius, Damian Trilling, Judith Möller, Balázs Bodó, Claes H. de Vreese, and Natali Helberger. Should we worry about filter bubbles? Internet Policy Review, 5(1):1–16, 2016. doi:10.14763/2016.1.401.

[57]

Pierre Bourdieu. Social space and symbolic power. In In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology, pages 123–139. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1990.

[58]

Anu Bradford. The Brussels Effect: How the European Union Rules the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2020.

[59]

Martin Brandt, Compton J. Tucker, Ankit Kariryaa, Kjeld Rasmussen, Christin Abel, Jennifer Small, Jerome Chave, Laura Vang Rasmussen, Pierre Hiernaux, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Laurent Kergoat, Ole Mertz, Christian Igel, Fabian Gieseke, Johannes Schöning, Sizhuo Li, Katherine Melocik, Jesse Meyer, Scott Sino, Eric Romero, Erin Glennie, Amandine Montagu, Morgane Dendoncker, and Rasmus Fensholt. An unexpectedly large count of trees in the West African Sahara and Sahel. Nature, 587:78–82, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2824-5.

[60]

Sarah Brayne. Predict and Surveil: Data, Discretion, and the Future of Policing. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2021.

[61]

Leo Breiman. Random forests. Machine Learning, 45(1):5–32, 2001. doi:10.1023/A:1010933404324.

[62]

J. Scott Brennen and Daniel Kreiss. Digitalization. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, pages 1–11. John Wiley & Sons, 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118766804.wbiect111.

[63]

Kay H. Brodersen, Fabian Gallusser, Jim Koehler, Nicolas Remy, and Steven L. Scott. Inferring causal impact using Bayesian structural time-series models. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 9(1):247–274, 2015. doi:10.1214/14-AOAS788.

[64]

Eliot Brown and Maureen Farrell. The Cult of We: WeWork, Adam Neumann, and the Great Startup Delusion. Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2021.

[65]

Joy Buolamwini and Timnit Gebru. Gender shades: intersectional accuracy disparities in commercial gender classification. In Sorelle A. Friedler and Christo Wilson, editors, Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency, volume 81, 77–91. New York, 2018. Proceedings of Machine Learning Research (PMLR). URL: https://proceedings.mlr.press/v81/buolamwini18a.html.

[66]

Jason W. Burton, Nicole Cruz, and Ulrike Hahn. Reconsidering evidence of moral contagion in online social networks. Nature Human Behavior, 5:1629–1635, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41562-021-01133-5.

[67]

Anastasia Buyalskaya, Marcos Gallo, and Colin F. Camerer. The golden age of social science. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(5):1–11, 2021. doi:10.1073/pnas.2002923118.

[68]

Craig Calhoun, Dilip Parameshw Gaonkar, and Charles Taylor. Degenerations of Democracy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2022.

[69]

Chico Q. Camargo and Felix M. Simon. Mis- and disinformation studies are too big to fail: six suggestions for the field's future. Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review, 3(5):1–9, 2022. doi:10.37016/mr-2020-106.

[70]

Laura Cardella, Jia Hao, Ivalina Kalcheva, and Yung-Yu Ma. Computerization of the equity, foreign exchange, derivatives, and fixed-income markets. The Financial Review, 49(2):231–243, 2014. doi:10.1111/fire.12033.

[71]

Matt Carlson, Sue Robinson, and Seth C. Lewis. News after Trump: Journalism's Crisis of Relevance in a Changed Media Culture. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2021. doi:10.1093/oso/9780197550342.001.0001.

[72]

John Carreyou. Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2018.

[73]

Andreu Casero-Ripollés, Ramón A. Feenstra, and Simon Tormey. Old and new media logics in an electoral campaign: the case of podemos and the two-way street mediatization of politics. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3):378–397, 2016. doi:10.1177/1940161216645340.

[74]

Manuel Castells. The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199255771.001.0001.

[75]

Manuel Castells. Communication Power. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2 edition, 2013.

[76]

Max Chafkin. The Contrarian: Peter Thiel and Silicon Valley's Pursuit of Power. Penguin Books, New York, 2021.

[77]

Le Chen, Chi Zhang, and Christo Wilson. Tweeting under pressure: analyzing trending topics and evolving word choice on Sina Weibo. In Muthu Muthukrishnan, Amr El Abbadi, and Balachander Krishnamurthy, editors, COSN '13: Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Online social networks, pages 89–100. ACM, New York, 2013. doi:10.1145/2512938.2512940.

[78]

Aleena Chia, Brendan Keogh, Dale Leorke, and Benjamin Nicoll. Platformisation in game development. Internet Policy Review, 9(4):1–28, 2020. doi:10.14763/2020.4.1515.

[79]

Garret Christensen, Jeremy Freese, and Edward Miguel. Transparent and Reproducible Social Science Research: How To Do Open Science. University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 2019.

[80]

Brian Christian. The Alignment Problem: Machine Learning and Human Values. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2020.

[81]

Brian Christian and Tom Griffiths. Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions. Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2016.

[82]

Clifford G. Christians, Theodore L. Glasser, Denis McQuail, Kaarle Nordenstreng, and Robert A. White. Normative Theories of the Media: Journalism in Democratic Societies. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 2009.

[83]

Angèle Christin. Counting clicks: quantification and variation in web journalism in the United States and France. American Journal of Sociology, 123(5):1382–1415, 2018. doi:10.1086/696137.

[84]

Angèle Christin. Metrics at Work: Journalism and the Contested Meaning of Algorithms. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2020.

[85]

Angèle Christin and Rebecca Lewis. The drama of metrics: status, spectacle, and resistance among youtube drama creators. Social Media + Society, 7(1):1–14, 2021. doi:10.1177/2056305121999660.

[86]

Alexandra Cirone and Arthur Spirling. Turning history into data: data collection, measurement, and inference in HPE. Journal of Historical Political Economy, 1(1):127–154, 2021. doi:10.1561/115.00000005.

[87]

Duncan Clark. Alibaba: The House That Jack Ma Built. Harper Collins, New York, 2016.

[88]

Derrick L. Cogburn and Fatima K. Espinoza-Vasquez. From networked nominee to networked nation: examining the impact of web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 obama campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2):189–213, 2011. doi:10.1080/15377857.2011.540224.

[89]

Alexander Coppock, Seth J. Hill, and Lynn Vavreck. The small effects of political advertising are small regardless of context, message, sender, or receiver: evidence from 59 real-time randomized experiments. Science Advances, 6(36):1–6, 2020. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc4046.

[90]

Thomas H. Cormen. Algorithms Unlocked. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2013.

[91]

Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to Algorithms. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 4 edition, 2022.

[92]

Rogier Creemers. Cyber China: upgrading propaganda, public opinion work and social management for the twenty-first century. Journal of Contemporary China, 26(103):85–100, 2017. doi:10.1080/10670564.2016.1206281.

[93]

Robert A. Dahl. On Democracy. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1998.

[94]

Daniel DellaPosta, Yongren Shi, and Michael Macy. Why do Liberals drink Lattes? American Journal of Sociology, 120(5):1473–1511, 2015. doi:10.1086/681254.

[95]

James Dennis. A party within a party posing as a movement? Momentum as a movement faction. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 17(2):97–113, 2020. doi:10.1080/19331681.2019.1702608.

[96]

Marco Deseriis. Digital movement parties: a comparative analysis of the technopolitical cultures and the participation platforms of the movimento 5 stelle and the piratenpartei. Information, Communication & Society, 23(12):1770–1786, 2020. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2019.1631375.

[97]

John Dewey. The Public and Its Problems. Holt Publishers, New York, 1927.

[98]

Nicholas Diakopoulos. Automating the News: How Algorithms Are Rewriting the Media. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2019.

[99]

John Doerr. Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Portfolio/Penguin, New York, 2018.

[100]

Katharine Dommett. Data-driven political campaigns in practice: understanding and regulating diverse data-driven campaigns. Internet Policy Review, 8(4):1–18, 2019. doi:10.14763/2019.4.1432.

[101]

Katharine Dommett. Roadblocks to interactive digital adoption? elite perspectives of party practices in the united kingdom. Party Politics, 26(2):165–175, 2020. doi:10.1177/1354068818761196.

[102]

Katharine Dommett, Luke Temple, and Patrick Seyd. Dynamics of intra-party organisation in the digital age: a grassroots analysis of digital adoption. Parliamentary Affairs, 74(2):378–397, 2021. doi:10.1093/pa/gsaa007.

[103]

Joan Donovan, Emily Dreyfuss, and Brian Friedberg. Meme Wars: The Untold Story of the Online Battles Upending Democracy in America. Bloomsbury Publishing, New York, 2022.

[104]

Evelyn Douek. Governing online speech: from `posts-as-trumps' to proportionality and probability. Columbia Law Review, 121(3):759–834, 2021. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3679607.

[105]

Evelyn Douek. Facebook's responses in the trump case are better than a kick in the teeth, but not much. Lawfare, 2021. URL: https://www.lawfareblog.com/facebooks-responses-trump-case-are-better-kick-teeth-not-much.

[106]

Daniel W. Drezner, Henry Farrell, and Abraham L. Newman. The Uses and Abuses of Weaponized Interdependence. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 2021.

[107]

David Easley and Jon Kleinberg. Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511761942.

[108]

Scott A. Eldridge. Online Journalism from the Periphery: Interloper Media and the Journalistic Field. Routledge, London, 2018. doi:10.4324/9781315671413.

[109]

Jon Elster. Explaining Social Behavior: More Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2 edition, 2015. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107763111.

[110]

Ryan D. Enos and Eitan D. Hersh. Party activists as campaign advertisers: the ground campaign as a principal-agent problem. American Political Science Review, 109(2):252–278, 2015. doi:10.1017/S0003055415000064.

[111]

Robert M. Entman. Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2004.

[112]

Ben Epstein and Jeffrey D. Broxmeyer. The (surprisingly interesting) story of e-mail in the 2016 presidential election. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 17(3):232–248, 2020. doi:10.1080/19331681.2020.1755762.

[113]

Edward Jay Epstein. How America Lost Its Secrets: Edward Snowden, the Man and the Theft. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2017.

[114]

Joshua M. Epstein. Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2006.

[115]

Matthew S. Erie and Thomas Streinz. The beijing effect: china's digital silk road as transnational data governance. Journal of International Law and Politics, 54(1):1–92, 2021.

[116]

Wendy Nelson Espeland and Michael Sauder. Rankings and reactivity: how public measures recreate social worlds. American Journal of Sociology, 113(1):1–40, 2007. doi:10.1086/517897.

[117]

Wendy Nelson Espeland and Mitchell L. Stevens. A sociology of quantification. European Journal of Sociology, 49(3):401–436, 2008. doi:10.1017/S0003975609000150.

[118]

Virginia Eubanks. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2018.

[119]

Benedict Evans. News by the ton: 75 years of US advertising. Benedict Evans, June 15 2020. URL: https://www.ben-evans.com/benedictevans/2020/6/14/75-years-of-us-advertising.

[120]

David S. Evans and Richard Schmalensee. Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms. Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA, 2016.

[121]

Rebecca A. Fannin. Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder & Going Global. Nicholas Brealey Publishing, Boston, MA, 2019.

[122]

Henry Farrell and Abraham L. Newman. Of Privacy and Power: The Transatlantic Struggle over Freedom and Security. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2019.

[123]

Henry Farrell and Abraham L. Newman. Weaponized interdependence: how global economic networks shape state coercion. International Security, 44(1):42–79, 2019. doi:10.1162/isec{_}a{_}00351.

[124]

Andrew Guthrie Ferguson. The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement. New York University Press, New York, 2017.

[125]

Myra Marx Ferree, William A. Gamson, Jürgen Gerhards, and Dieter Rucht. Four models of the public sphere in modern democracies. Theory and Society, 31(3):289–324, 2002. doi:10.1023/A:1016284431021.

[126]

Myra Marx Ferree, William A. Gamson, Jürgen Gerhards, and Dieter Rucht. Shaping Abortion Discourse: Democracy and the Public Sphere in Germany and the United States. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511613685.

[127]

Seth Flaxman, Sharad Goel, and Justin M. Rao. Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption. Public Opinion Quarterly, 80(1):298–320, 2016. doi:10.1093/poq/nfw006.

[128]

Bent Flyvbjerk. Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How it Can Succeed Again. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511810503.

[129]

Nancy Fraser. Rethinking the public sphere: a contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. Social Text, pages 56–80, 1990. doi:10.2307/466240.

[130]

Sheera Frenkel and Cecilia Kang. An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination. Harper, New York, 2021.

[131]

Sarah Frier. No Filter: The Inside Story of Instagram. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2020.

[132]

Hannah Fry. Hello World: How to Be Human in the Age of the Machine. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2018.

[133]

Felix Gaisbauer, Armin Pournaki, Sven Banisch, and Eckehard Olbrich. Ideological differences in engagement in public debate on twitter. PLoS One, 16(3):e0249241, 2021. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249241.

[134]

Scott Galloway. The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google. Portfolio/Penguin, New York, 2017.

[135]

Matthew Gentzkow, Bryan Kelly, and Matt Taddy. Text as data. Journal of Economic Literature, 57(3):535–574, 2019. doi:10.1257/jel.20181020.

[136]

Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro. Ideological segregation online and offline. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4):1799–1839, 2011. doi:10.1093/qje/qjr044.

[137]

Paolo Gerbaudo. The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy. Pluto Press, London, 2019.

[138]

John Gerring. Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2 edition, 2012. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139022224.

[139]

Masha Gessen. Why are some journalists afraid of "moral clarity"? The New Yorker, 2020-06-24. URL: {https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/why-are-some-journalists-afraid-of-moral-clarity}.

[140]

Theresa Gessler and Sophia Hunger. How the refugee crisis and radical right parties shape party competition on immigration. Political Science Research and Methods, 10(3):524–544, 2022. doi:10.1017/psrm.2021.64.

[141]

Thomas F. Gieryn. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1999.

[142]

Fabrizio Gilardi, Lucien Baumgartner, Clau Dermont, Karsten Donnay, Theresa Gessler, Maël Kubli, Lucas Leemann, and Stefan Müller. Building research infrastructures to study digital technology and politics: lessons from Switzerland. PS: Political Science & Politics, 55(2):354–359, 2022. doi:10.1017/S1049096521000895.

[143]

Fabrizio Gilardi, Theresa Gessler, Maël Kubli, and Stefan Müller. Social media and political agenda setting. Political Communication, 39(1):39–60, 2021. doi:10.1080/10584609.2021.1910390.

[144]

Todd Gitlin. Inside Prime Time. Pantheon Books, New York, 1983.

[145]

Scott A. Golder and Michael W. Macy. Digital footprints: opportunities and challenges for online social research. Annual Review of Sociology, 40:129–152, 2014. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043145.

[146]

Sandra González-Bailón. Decoding the Social World: Data Science and the Unintended Consequences of Communication. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2017.

[147]

Sandra González-Bailón, Javier Borge-Holthoefer, Alejandro Rivero, and Yamir Moreno. The dynamics of protest recruitment through an online network. Nature Scientific Reports, 2011. doi:10.1038/srep00197.

[148]

David Goodhart. The Road to Somewhere: The New Tribes Shaping British Politics. C. Hurst & Co., London, 2017.

[149]

Robert Gorwa. The platform governance triangle: conceptualising the informal regulation of online content. Internet Policy Review, 8(2):1–22, 2019. doi:10.14763/2019.2.1407.

[150]

Robert Gorwa. What is platform governance? Information, Communication & Society, 22(6):854–871, 2019. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2019.1573914.

[151]

Mark Granovetter. Society and Economy: Framework and Principles. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 2017.

[152]

Donald P. Green and Alan S. Gerber. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 4 edition, 2019.

[153]

Joshua Green. Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency. Penguin Press, New York, 2017.

[154]

James Griffiths. The Great Firewall of China: How to Build and Control an Alternative Version of the Internet. ZED Books, London, 2019.

[155]

Justin Grimmer, Margaret E. Roberts, and Brandon M. Stewart. Text As Data: A New Framework for Machine Learning and the Social Sciences. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2022.

[156]

Andrew Guess, Jonathan Nagler, and Joshua A. Tucker. Less than you think: prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook. Science Advances, 5(1):eaau4586, 2019. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau4586.

[157]

Andrew Guess, Brendan Nyhan, Benjamin Lyons, and Jason Reifler. Avoiding the Echo Chamber about Echo Chambers: Why selective exposure to like-minded political news is less prevalent than you think. Knight Foundation, Miami, FL, 2018. URL: {https://kf-site-production.s3.amazonaws.com/media_elements/files/000/000/133/original/Topos_KF_White-Paper_Nyhan_V1.pdf}.

[158]

Andrew M. Guess, Brendan Nyhan, and Jason Reifler. Exposure to untrustworthy websites in the 2016 us election. Nature Human Behavior, 4:472–480, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0833-x.

[159]

Martin Gurri. The Revolt of The Public and the Crisis of Authority in the New Millennium. Stripe Press, San Francisco, CA, 2 edition, 2018.

[160]

Amy Guttman. Democracy. In Robert E. Goodin, Philip Pettit, and Thomas Pogge, editors, A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, pages 521–532. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 2 edition, 2007. doi:10.1002/9781405177245.ch25.

[161]

Jürgen Habermas. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1981.

[162]

Jürgen Habermas. Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit: Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1990.

[163]

Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996.

[164]

David Halberstam. The Best and the Brightest. Random House, New York, 1972.

[165]

Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini. Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511790867.

[166]

Hahrie Han. How Organizations Develop Activists: Civic Associations and Leadership in the 21st Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014.

[167]

Hahrie Han. The organizational roots of political activism: field experiments on creating a relational context. American Political Science Review, 110(2):296–307, 2016. doi:10.1017/S000305541600006X.

[168]

Hahrie Han, Elizabeth McKenna, and Michelle Oyakawa. Prisms of the People. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2021.

[169]

David J. Hand. Measurement Theory and Practice: The World Through Quantification. Wiley, London, 2004.

[170]

David J. Hand. Measurement: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016.

[171]

Hanno Hardt. Social Theories of the Press: Constituents of Communication Research, 1840s to 1920s. Rowman & Littlefield, Oxford, 2 edition, 2001.

[172]

Eitan D. Hersh. Hacking the Electorate: How Campaigns Perceive Voters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015.

[173]

Eitan D. Hersh. Cambridge analytica and the future of data privacy: written testimony of eitan hersh. In Hearing Before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Washington, DC, May 16 2018. URL: https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/05-16-18%20Hersh%20Testimony1.pdf.

[174]

Jonathan E. Hillman. The Digital Silk Road: China's Quest to Wire the World and Win the Future. Harper Business, New York, 2021.

[175]

Matthew Hindman. The real lessons of howard dean: reflections on the first digital campaign. Perspectives on Politics, 3(1):121–128, 2005. doi:10.1017/S1537592705050115.

[176]

Matthew Hindman. The Myth of of Digital Democracy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2009.

[177]

Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak. Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3):50–68, 1996. doi:10.1177/002224299606000304.

[178]

Christian Pieter Hoffmann. Techlash: digitale plattformen zwischen utopie und dystopie. In Stephan Russ-Mohl, editor, Streitlust und Streitkunst: Diskurs als Essenz der Demokratie, pages 66–91. Herbert von Halem Verlag, Köln, 2020.

[179]

Jake M. Hofman, Amit Sharma, and Duncan J. Watts. Prediction and explanation in social systems. Science, 355(6324):486–488, 2017. doi:10.1126/science.aal3856.

[180]

Erika Suh Holmberg. Lessons from Trump's suspension: how Twitter should clarify and strengthen its “public interest” approach to moderating leaders' violence-inspiring speech. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 2021.

[181]

Dawn E. Holmes. Big Data: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2017.

[182]

James Howison, Andrea Wiggins, and Kevin Crowston. Validity issues in the use of social network analysis with digital trace data. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(12):767–797, 2011. doi:10.17705/1jais.00282.

[183]

Emil Hvitfeldt. Supervised Machine Learning for Text Analysis in R. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2022.

[184]

Tim Hwang. Subprime Attention Crisis: Advertising and the Time Bomb at the Heart of the Internet. Farrat, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2020.

[185]

Ruth Igielnik, Scott Keeter, Courtney Kennedy, and Bradley Spahn. Commercial Voter Files and the Study of U.S. Politics. Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, February 15 2018. URL: http://www.pewresearch.org/2018/02/15/commercial-voter-files-and-the-study-of-u-s-politics/.

[186]

Sarah Igo. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

[187]

Sarah E. Igo. The Known Citizen: A History of Privacy in Modern America. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2018.

[188]

Mike Isaac. Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2019.

[189]

Walter Isaacson. The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 2014.

[191]

Sasha Issenberg. The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns. Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2012.

[192]

Sarah J. Jackson, Moya Bailey, and Brooke Foucault Welles. #HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2020.

[193]

Min Jiang and King-wa Fu. Chinese social media and big data: big data, big brother, big profit? Policy & Internet, 10(4):372–392, 2018. doi:10.1002/poi3.187.

[194]

Steven Johnson. The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic–and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World. Riverhead Books, New York, 2006.

[195]

Andreas Jungherr. The German federal election of 2009: the challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns. Transformative Works and Cultures, 2012. doi:10.3983/twc.2012.0310.

[196]

Andreas Jungherr. The logic of political coverage on Twitter: temporal dynamics and content. Journal of Communication, 64(2):239–259, 2014. doi:10.1111/jcom.12087.

[197]

Andreas Jungherr. Analyzing Political Communication with Digital Trace Data: The Role of Twitter Messages in Social Science Research. Springer, Cham, 2015. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20319-5.

[198]

Andreas Jungherr. Datengestützte Verfahren im Wahlkampf. Zeitschrift für Politikberatung, 8(1):3–14, 2016. doi:10.5771/1865-4789-2016-1-3.

[199]

Andreas Jungherr. Four functions of digital tools in election campaigns: the German case. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3):358–377, 2016. doi:10.1177/1940161216642597.

[200]

Andreas Jungherr. Normalizing digital trace data. In Natalie Jomini Stroud and Shannon C. McGregor, editors, Digital Discussions: How Big Data Informs Political Communication, pages 9–35. Routledge, New York, 2019. doi:10.4324/9781351209434-2.

[201]

Andreas Jungherr. Digital campaigning: how digital media change the work of parties and campaign organizations and impact elections. In Jan Skopek, editor, Research Handbook Digital Sociology. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2022.

[202]

Andreas Jungherr and Pascal Jürgens. The political click: political participation through e-petitions in Germany. Policy & Internet, 2(4):131–165, 2010. doi:10.2202/1944-2866.1084.

[203]

Andreas Jungherr and Pascal Jürgens. Forecasting the pulse: how deviations from regular patterns in online data can identify offline phenomena. Internet Research, 23(5):589–607, 2013. doi:10.1108/IntR-06-2012-0115.

[204]

Andreas Jungherr and Pascal Jürgens. Through a glass, darkly: tactical support and symbolic association in Twitter messages commenting on Stuttgart 21. Social Science Computer Review, 32(1):74–89, 2014. doi:10.1177/0894439313500022.

[205]

Andreas Jungherr and Oliver Posegga. Computational social science. In Norbert Kersting, Jörg Radtke, and Sigrid Baringhorst, editors, Handbuch Digitalisierung und politische Beteiligung. Springer, Wiesbaden, 2022.

[206]

Andreas Jungherr, Oliver Posegga, and Jisun An. Discursive power in contemporary media systems: a comparative framework. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 24(4):404–425, 2019. doi:10.1177/1940161219841543.

[207]

Andreas Jungherr, Oliver Posegga, and Jisun An. Populist supporters on Reddit: a comparison of content and behavioral patterns within publics of supporters of Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Social Science Computer Review, 40(3):809–830, 2022. doi:10.1177/0894439321996130.

[208]

Andreas Jungherr and Adrian Rauchfleisch. Negative downstream effects of disinformation discourse: evidence from the US. SocArxiv, 2022. doi:10.31235/osf.io/a3rzm.

[209]

Andreas Jungherr, Gonzalo Rivero, and Daniel Gayo-Avello. Retooling Politics: How Digital Media are Shaping Democracy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2020. doi:10.1017/9781108297820.

[210]

Andreas Jungherr and Damien Schlarb. The extended reach of game engine companies: how companies like Epic Games and Unity Technologies provide platforms for extended reality applications and the metaverse. Social Media + Society, 8(2):1–12, 2022. doi:10.1177/20563051221107641.

[211]

Andreas Jungherr, Harald Schoen, and Pascal Jürgens. The mediation of politics through Twitter: an analysis of messages posted during the campaign for the German federal election 2013. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(1):50–68, 2016. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12143.

[212]

Andreas Jungherr, Harald Schoen, Oliver Posegga, and Pascal Jürgens. Digital trace data in the study of public opinion: an indicator of attention toward politics rather than political support. Social Science Computer Review, 35(3):336–356, 2017. doi:10.1177/0894439316631043.

[213]

Andreas Jungherr and Ralph Schroeder. Digital Transformations of the Public Arena. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2021. doi:10.1017/9781009064484.

[214]

Andreas Jungherr and Ralph Schroeder. Disinformation and the structural transformations of the public arena: addressing the actual challenges to democracy. Social Media + Society, 7(1):1–13, 2021. doi:10.1177/2056305121988928.

[215]

Andreas Jungherr and Ralph Schroeder. Artificial intelligence and the public arena. Working Paper, 2022.

[216]

Andreas Jungherr, Ralph Schroeder, and Sebastian Stier. Digital media and the surge of political outsiders: explaining the success of political challengers in the United States, Germany, and China. Social Media + Society, 5(3):1–12, 2019. doi:10.1177/2056305119875439.

[217]

Andreas Jungherr and Yannis Theocharis. The empiricist's challenge: asking meaningful questions in political science in the age of big data. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 14(1):97–109, 2017. doi:10.1080/19331681.2017.1312187.

[218]

Andreas Jungherr, Alexander Wuttke, Matthias Mader, and Harald Schoen. A source like any other? field and survey experiment evidence on how interest groups shape public opinion. Journal of Communication, 71(2):276–304, 2021. doi:10.1093/joc/jqab005.

[219]

Pascal Jürgens, Andreas Jungherr, and Harald Schoen. Small worlds with a difference: new gatekeepers and the filtering of political information on Twitter. In David De Roure and Scott Poole, editors, WebSci 2011: Proceedings of the 3rd International Web Science Conference, number 21. New York, 2011. ACM. doi:10.1145/2527031.2527034.

[220]

Pascal Jürgens, Christine E. Meltzer, and Michael Scharkow. Age and gender representation on German TV: a longitudinal computational analysis. Computational Communication Science, 2022. doi:10.5117/CCR2022.1.005.JURG.

[221]

Pascal Jürgens and Birgit Stark. The power of default on Reddit: a general model to measure the influence of information intermediaries. Policy & Internet, 9(4):395–419, 2017. doi:10.1002/poi3.166.

[222]

Pascal Jürgens, Birgit Stark, and Melanie Magin. Two half-truths make a whole? on bias in self-reports and tracking data. Social Science Computer Review, 38(5):600–615, 2020. doi:10.1177/0894439319831643.

[223]

Dan M. Kahan. The politically motivated reasoning paradigm, part 1: what politically motivated reasoning is and how to measure it. In Robert A. Scott and Marlis C. Buchmann, editors, Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pages 1–16. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0417.

[224]

Dan M. Kahan. The politically motivated reasoning paradigm, part 2: unanswered questions. In Robert A. Scott and Marlis C. Buchmann, editors, Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pages 1–15. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0418.

[225]

Jonas Kaiser and Adrian Rauchfleisch. The implications of venturing down the rabbit hole. Internet Policy Review, June 27 2019. URL: https://policyreview.info/articles/news/implications-venturing-down-rabbit-hole/1406.

[226]

Jonas Kaiser and Adrian Rauchfleisch. Birds of a feather get recommended together: algorithmic homophily in YouTube's channel recommendations in the United States and Germany. Social Media + Society, 6(4):1–15, 2020. doi:10.1177/2056305120969914.

[227]

Zolan Kanno-Young and Cecilia Kang. `They're killing people': biden denounces social media for virus disinformation. The New York Times, 2021. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/16/us/politics/biden-facebook-social-media-covid.html.

[228]

Amy Kapczynski. The law of informational capitalism. The Yale Law Journal, 129(5):1460–1515, 2020.

[229]

Simin Kargar and Adrian Rauchfleisch. State-aligned trolling in Iran and the double-edged affordances of Instagram. New Media & Society, 21(7):1506–1527, 2019. doi:10.1177/1461444818825133.

[230]

David Karpf. Social science research methods in internet time. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5):639–661, 2012. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2012.665468.

[231]

David Karpf. The MoveOn Effect: The Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199898367.001.0001.

[232]

David Karpf. Analytical Activism: Digital Listerning and the New Political Strategy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016.

[233]

David Karpf. Something I no longer believe: is internet time slowing down? Social Media + Society, 5(3):1–4, 2019. doi:10.1177/2056305119849492.

[234]

Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal Influence, the Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. The Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1955.

[235]

Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair. Democracy and the Cartelization of Political Parties. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.

[236]

David Kaye. Speech Police: The Global Struggle to Govern the Internet. Columbia Global Reports, New York, 2019.

[237]

John Keane. Democracy and Media Decadence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.

[238]

Daphne Keller. Internet Platforms: Observations on Speech, Danger, and Money. Number 1807 in Aegis series paper. Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA, 2018. URL: https://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/files/publication/files/381732092-internet-platforms-observations-on-speech-danger-and-money.pdf.

[239]

Marc Keuschnigg, Niclas Lovsjö, and Peter Hedström. Analytical sociology and computational social science. Journal of Computational Social Science, 1(1):3–14, 2018. doi:10.1007/s42001-017-0006-5.

[240]

Marie Luise Kiefer. Journalismus und Medien als Institutionen. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, Konstanz, 2010.

[241]

Gary King. Ensuring the data-rich future of the social sciences. Science, 331(6018):719–721, 2011. doi:10.1126/science.1197872.

[242]

Brent Kitchens, Steven L. Johnson, and Peter Gray. Understanding echo chambers and filter bubbles: the impact of social media on diversification and partisan shifts in news consumption. MIS Quarterly, 44(4):1619–1649, 2020. doi:10.25300/MISQ/2020/16371.

[243]

Jon Kleinberg, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan, and Ashesh Rambachan. Algorithmic fairness. AEA Papers and Proceedings, 108:22–27, 2018. doi:10.1257/pandp.20181018.

[244]

Jeffrey Knockel, Christopher Parsons, Lotus Ruan, Ruohan Xiong, Jedidiah Crandall, and Ron Deibert. We Chat, They Watch How International Users Unwittingly Build up WeChat's Chinese Censorship Apparatus. The Citizen Lab, University of Toronto, 2020. URL: https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/101395/1/Report%23127--wechattheywatch-web.pdf.

[245]

Curd Knüpfer, Matthias Hoffmann, and Vadim Voskrensenskii. Hijacking MeToo: transnational dynamics and networked frame contestation on the far right in the case of the `120 decibels' campaign. Information, Communication & Society, 25(7):1010–1028, 2022. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2020.1822904.

[246]

Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel. The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect. The Crown Publishing Group, New York, 4 edition, 2021.

[247]

Daniel Kreiss. Taking Our Country Back: The Crafting of Networked Politics from Howard Dean to Barack Obama. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782536.001.0001.

[248]

Daniel Kreiss. Prototype Politics: Technology-Intensive Campaigning and the Data of Democracy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016.

[249]

Daniel Kreiss. Digital opportunity structures: explaining variation in digital mobilization during the 2016 democratic primaries. In Michael X. Delli Carpini, editor, Digital Media and Democratic Futures, pages 42–68. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 2019.

[250]

Daniel Kreiss and Shannon C. McGregor. Technology firms shape political communication: the work of Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, and Google with campaigns during the 2016 U.S. presidential cycle. Political Communication, 35(2):155–177, 2018. doi:10.1080/10584609.2017.1364814.

[251]

Daniel Kreiss and Shannon C. McGregor. The “arbiters of what our voters see”: Facebook and Google's struggle with policy, process, and enforcement around political advertising. Political Communication, 36(4):499–522, 2019. doi:10.1080/10584609.2019.1619639.

[252]

Simon Kruschinski and André Haller. Restrictions on data-driven political micro-targeting in Germany. Internet Policy Review, 6(4):1–23, 2017. doi:10.14763/2017.4.780.

[253]

Solomon Kullback and Richard A. Leibler. On information and sufficiency. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 22(1):79–86, 1951.

[254]

Cristina Lafont. Democracy Without Shortcuts: A Participatory Conception of Deliberative Democracy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2020. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198848189.001.0001.

[255]

Hélène Landemore. Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2012.

[256]

Hobson Lane and Maria Dyshel. Natural Language Processing in Action: Understanding, analyzing, and generating text with Python. Manning Publications Co., Shelter Island, NY, 2 edition, 2022.

[257]

Doug Laney. 3D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity, and Variety, Application Delivery Strategies. META Group, Stamford, CT, 2001. URL: http://blogs.gartner.com/doug-laney/files/ 2012/01/ad949-3D-Data-Management-Controlling-Data-Volume-Velocity-and-Variety.pdf.

[258]

Markus Lanz and Richard David Precht. Lanz und Precht diskutieren über die Medienlandschaft. Lanz und Precht, July 15 2022. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvUSVSdr-zI.

[259]

Harold Laswell. The structure and function of communication in society. In Lyman Bryson, editor, The Communication of Ideas, pages 243–276. Institue for Religous and Social Studies, New York, NY, 1948.

[260]

Michael Laver, Kenneth Benoit, and John Garry. Extracting policy positions from political texts using words as data. American Political Science Review, 97(2):311–331, 2003. doi:10.1017/S0003055403000698.

[261]

David Lazer, Ryan Kennedy, Gary King, and Alessandro Vespignani. The parable of Google Flu: traps in big data analysis. Science, 343(6176):1203–1205, 2014. doi:10.1126/science.1248506.

[262]

David Lazer, Alex Pentland, Lada Adamic, Sinan Aral, Albert-László Barabási, Devon Brewer, Nicholas Christakis, Noshir Contractor, James Fowler, Myron Gutmann, Tony Jebara, Gary King, Michael W. Macy, Deb Roy, and Marshall Van Alstyne. Computational social science. Science, 323(5915):721–723, 2009. doi:10.1126/science.1167742.

[263]

Kai-Fu Lee. AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA, 2018.

[264]

Frederick Levine, Christopher Locke, David Searls, and David Weinberger. The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual. Persus Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 2000.

[265]

Steven Levy. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA, 2010.

[266]

Steven Levy. In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2011.

[267]

Steven Levy. Facebook: The Inside Story. Blue Rider Press, New York, 2020.

[268]

Michael Lewis. Flash Boys: A Wall Street Revolt. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2014.

[269]

Walter Lippmann. The Phantom Public. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1927.

[270]

Panos Louridas. Algorithms. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2020.

[271]

Will Lowe. Understanding Wordscores. Political Analysis, 16(4):356–371, 2008. doi:10.1093/pan/mpn004.

[272]

Wesley Lowery. A reckoning over objectivity, led by black journalists. The New York Times, June 23 2020. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/23/opinion/objectivity-black-journalists-coronavirus.html.

[273]

Yingdan Lu and Jennifer Pan. Capturing clicks: how the Chinese Government uses clickbait to compete for visibility. Political Communication, 38(1–2):23–54, 2021. doi:10.1080/10584609.2020.1765914.

[274]

Philipp M. Lutscher, Nils B. Weidmann, Margaret E. Roberts, Mattijs Jonker, and Alistair King. At home and abroad: the use of denial-of-service attacks during elections in nondemocratic regimes. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 64(2-3):373–401, 2020. doi:10.1177/0022002719861676.

[275]

Donald MacKenzie. Trading at the Speed of Light: How Ultrafast Algorithms Are Transforming Financial Markets. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2021.

[276]

Michael W. Macy and Robert Willer. From factors to actors: computational sociology and agent-based modeling. Annual Review of Sociology, 28:143–166, 2002. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.141117.

[277]

Alexis C. Madrigal. When the nerds go marching in. The Atlantic, November 16 2012. URL: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/11/when-the-nerds-go-marching-in/265325/?single_page=true.

[278]

Klaus Mainzer. Die Berechnung der Welt: Von der Weltformel zu Big Data. C. H. Beck, München, 2014.

[279]

Peter Mair. Ruling The Void: The Hollowing of Western Democracy. Verso, New York, 2013.

[280]

Helen Margetts. The cyber party: the causes and consequences of organisational innovation in european political parties. In The Causes and Consequences of Organisational Innovation in European Political Parties. ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Grenoble, 2001.

[281]

Helen Margetts. Cyber parties. In Richard S. Katz and William Crotty, editors, Handbook of Party Politics, pages 528–535. SAGE, London, 2006. doi:10.4135/9781848608047.n46.

[282]

Sandra G. Mayson. Bias in, bias out. The Yale Law Journal, 128(8):2218–2300, 2019.

[283]

Maxwell McCombs and Sebastián Valenzuela. Setting the Agenda: Mass Media and Public Opinion. Polity Press, Cambridge, 3 edition, 2021.

[284]

Matt McFarland. Elon Musk: 'With artificial intelligence we are summoning the demon.'. The Washington Post, 2014. URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2014/10/24/elon-musk-with-artificial-intelligence-we-are-summoning-the-demon/, doi:2014-10-24.

[285]

Shannon C. McGregor. Social media as public opinion: how journalists use social media to represent public opinion. Journalism, 20(8):1070–1086, 2019. doi:10.1177/1464884919845458.

[286]

Shannon C. McGregor. “Taking the temperature of the room”: how political campaigns use social media to understand and represent public opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 84(S1):236–256, 2020. doi:10.1093/poq/nfaa012.

[287]

Fenwick McKelvey and Jill Piebiak. Porting the political campaign: the NationBuilder platform and the global flows of political technology. New Media & Society, 20(3):901–918, 2018. doi:10.1177/1461444816675439.

[288]

Elizabeth McKenna and Hahrie Han. Groundbreakers: How Obama's 2.2 Million Volunteers Transformed Campaigning in America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014.

[289]

Denis McQuail. Journalism and society. SAGE Publications, London, 2013.

[290]

Albert J. Menkveld. The economics of high-frequency trading: taking stock. Annual Review of Financial Economics, 8:1–24, 2016. doi:10.1146/annurev-financial-121415-033010.

[291]

Hugo Mercier. Not Born Yesterday: The Science of Who We Trust and What We Believe. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2020.

[292]

Nicolas Merz, Sven Regel, and Jirka Lewandowski. The Manifesto Corpus: a new resource for research on political parties and quantitative text analysis. Research & Politics, 3(2):1–8, 2016. doi:10.1177/2053168016643346.

[293]

John H. Miller and Scott E. Page. Complex Adaptive Systems: An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2007.

[294]

Shira Mitchell, Eric Potash, Solon Barocas, Alexander D'Amour, and Kristian Lum. Algorithmic fairness: choices, assumptions, and definitions. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, 8:141–163, 2021. doi:10.1146/annurev-statistics-042720-125902.

[295]

Paul Mozur, Muyi Xiao, and John Liu. `an invisible cage': how china is policing the future. The New York Times, June 25 2022. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/06/25/technology/china-surveillance-police.html.

[296]

Jerry Z. Muller. The Tyranny of Metrics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2018.

[297]

Kevin Munger. Tweetment effects on the tweeted: experimentally reducing racist harassment. Political Behavior, 39(3):629–649, 2017. doi:10.1007/s11109-016-9373-5.

[298]

Kevin Munger and Joseph Phillips. Right-wing YouTube: a supply and demand perspective. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 27(1):186–219, 2022. doi:10.1177/1940161220964767.

[299]

Judith Möller, Damian Trilling, Natali Helberger, and Bram van Es. Do not blame it on the algorithm: an empirical assessment of multiple recommender systems and their impact on content diversity. Information, Communication & Society, 21(7):959–977, 2018. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2018.1444076.

[300]

Jan-Werner Müller. Democracy Rules. Allen Lane, London, 2021.

[301]

Stefan Müller. The temporal focus of campaign communication. The Journal of Politics, 84(1):585–590, 2022. doi:10.1086/715165.

[302]

Philip M. Napoli. Audience Economics: Media Institutions and the Audience Marketplace. Columbia University Press, New York, 2003.

[303]

Simone Natale and Andrea Ballatore. The web will kill them all: new media, digital utopia, and political struggle in the italian 5-star movement. Media, Culture & Society, 36(1):105–121, 2014. doi:10.1177/0163443713511902.

[304]

W. Russell Neuman. The Future of the Mass Audience. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991.

[305]

W. Russell Neuman, Lauren Guggenheim, S. Mo Jang, and Soo Young Bae. The dynamics of public attention: agenda-setting theory meets big data. Journal of Communication, 64(2):193–214, 2014. doi:10.1111/jcom.12088.

[306]

Nic Newman, Richard Fletcher, Craig T. Robertson, Kirsten Eddy, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2022. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, Oxford, 2022. URL: https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/digital-news-report/2022.

[307]

Tom Nicholls, Nabeelah Shbbir, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Digital-Born News Media in Europe. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, Oxford, 2016.

[308]

David W. Nickerson and Todd Rogers. Political campaigns and big data. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2):51–74, 2014. doi:10.1257/jep.28.2.51.

[309]

Michael Nielsen. Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2012.

[310]

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Mundane internet tools, mobilizing practices, and the coproduction of citizenship in political campaigns. New Media & Society, 13(5):755–771, 2011. doi:10.1177/1461444810380863.

[311]

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Ground Wars: Personalized Communication in Political Campaigns. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2012.

[312]

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. No one cares what we know: three responsesto the irrelevance of political communication research. Political Communication, 35(1):145–149, 2018. doi:10.1080/10584609.2017.1406591.

[313]

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Economic contexts of journalism. In Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch, editors, The Handbook of Journalism Studies, pages 324–340. Routledge, New York, 2 edition, 2020. doi:10.4324/9781315167497-21.

[314]

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen and Sarah Anne Ganter. Dealing with digital intermediaries: a case study of the relations between publishers and platforms. New Media & Society, 20(4):1600–1617, 2018. doi:10.1177/1461444817701318.

[315]

Christian Nuernbergk and Julia Conrad. Conversations and campaign dynamics in a hybrid media environment: use of Twitter by members of the German Bundestag. Social Media + Society, 2(1):1–14, 2016. doi:10.1177/2056305116628888.

[316]

Brendan Nyhan. Facts and myths about misperceptions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 34(3):220–236, 2020. doi:10.1257/jep.34.3.220.

[317]

Margaret O'Mara. The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America. Penguin Press, New York, 2019.

[318]

Cathy O'Neil. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2016.

[319]

Tim O'Reilly. What is Web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. O'Reilly Blog, 2005. URL: http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html.

[320]

Tim O'Reilly. WTF? What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us. Harper Collins, New York, 2017.

[321]

Claus Offe. Political institutions and social power: conceptual explorations. In Ian Shapiro, Stephen Skowronek, and Daniel Galvin, editors, Rethinking Political Institutions. The Art of the State, pages 9–31. New York University Press, New York, 2006.

[322]

Eli Pariser. The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding From You. The Penguin Press, New York, 2011.

[323]

Geoffrey G. Parker, Marshall W. Van Alstyne, and Sangeet Paul Choudary. Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy and How to Make Them Work for You. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2016.

[324]

Frank Pasquale. The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2015.

[325]

Nathaniel G. Pearlman. Margin of victory: how technologists help politicians win elections. Praeger, Santa Barbara, CA, 2012.

[326]

Alex Pentland. Honest Signals: How They Shape Our World. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008.

[327]

Whitney Phillips. This is Why We Can't Have Nice Things: Mapping the Relationship Between Online Trolling and Mainstream Culture. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2015.

[328]

Whitney Phillips. The Oxygen of Amplification: Better Practices for Reporting on Extremists, Antagonists, and Manipulators Online. Data & Society, New York, 2018.

[329]

Whitney Phillips and Ryan M. Milner. The Ambivalent Internet: Mischief, Oddity, and Antagonism Online. Polity Press, Cambridge, 2017.

[330]

Victor Pickard. Democracy without Journalism? Confronting the Misinformation Society. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2020. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190946753.001.0001.

[331]

Andrew Piper. Enumerations: Data and Literary Study. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2018.

[332]

Christopher Pollitt and Geert Bouckaert. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis - Into The Age of Austerity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 4 edition, 2017.

[333]

Samuel L. Popkin. Crackup: The Republican Implosion and the Future of Presidential Politics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2021. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190913823.001.0001.

[334]

Oliver Posegga. Unlocking big data: at the crossroads of computer science and the social sciences. In Jan Skopek, editor, Research Handbook Digital Sociology. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2022.

[335]

Oliver Posegga and Andreas Jungherr. Characterizing political talk on Twitter: a comparison between public agenda, media agendas, and the Twitter agenda with regard to topics and dynamics. In HICSS 2019: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Science, pages 2590–2599. Scholarspace, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2019. doi:10125/59697.

[336]

Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger. The archers' manifesto. In Ian Christie, editor, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, pages 16–17. Faber & Faber, London, 1994.

[337]

Adam Przeworski. Why Bother With Elections? Polity Press, Cambridge, 2018.

[338]

Oliver Quiring. Interactivity. In Quiring, O. (2016). Interactivity. The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, 1–12., pages 1–12. John Wiley & Sons, 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118766804.wbiect075.

[339]

Hatim A. Rahman. The invisible cage: workers' reactivity to opaque algorithmic evaluations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 66(4):945–988, 2021. doi:10.1177/00018392211010118.

[340]

Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman. Networked: The New Social Operating System. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2012.

[341]

Jan Philipp Rau and Sebastian Stier. Die Echokammer-Hypothese: fragmentierung der Öffentlichkeit und politische Polarisierung durch digitale Medien? Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, 13(3):339–417, 2019. doi:10.1007/s12286-019-00429-1.

[342]

Adrian Rauchfleisch. The public sphere as an essentially contested concept: a co-citation analysis of the last 20 years of public sphere research. Communication and the Public, 2(1):3–18, 2017. doi:10.1177/2057047317691054.

[343]

Adrian Rauchfleisch and Jonas Kaiser. The German far-right on YouTube: an analysis of user overlap and user comments. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 64(3):373–396, 2020. doi:10.1080/08838151.2020.1799690.

[344]

Adrian Rauchfleisch and Jonas Kaiser. Deplatforming the far-right: an analysis of YouTube and BitChute. Social Science Research Network, 2021. URL: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3867818.

[345]

Adrian Rauchfleisch and Marko Kovic. The internet and generalized functions of the public sphere: transformative potentials from a comparative perspective. Social Media + Society, 2(2):1–15, 2016. doi:10.1177/2056305116646393.

[346]

Adrian Rauchfleisch, Dario Siegen, and Daniel Vogler. How COVID-19 displaced climate change: mediated climate change activism and issue attention in the Swiss media and online sphere. Environmental Communication, 2021. doi:10.1080/17524032.2021.1990978.

[347]

Christian Rauh and Jan Schwalbach. The ParlSpeech V2 data set: Full-text corpora of 6.3 million parliamentary speeches in the key legislative chambers of nine representative democracies. Harvard Dataverse, Cambridge, MA, 2020. doi:10.7910/DVN/L4OAKN.

[348]

Eric S. Raymond. The cathedral and the bazaar: Musings on Linux and open source by an accidental revolutionary. O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA, 1999.

[349]

Howard Rheingold. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1993.

[350]

Gonzalo Rivero. Preaching to the choir: ideology and following behaviour in social media. Contemporary Social Science, 14(1):54–70, 2019. doi:10.1080/21582041.2017.1325924.

[351]

Margaret E. Roberts. Censored: Distraction and Diversion Inside China's Great Firewall. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2018.

[352]

Jean-Charles Rochet and Jean Tirole. Platform competition in two-sided markets. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(4):990–1029, 2003. doi:10.1162/154247603322493212.

[353]

Jean‐Charles Rochet and Jean Tirole. Two‐sided markets: a progress report. The RAND Journal of Economics, 37(3):645–667, 2006. doi:10.1111/j.1756-2171.2006.tb00036.x.

[354]

Jay Rosen. The people formerly known as the audience. PRESSthink: Ghost of Democracy in the Media Machince, 2006. URL: http://archive.pressthink.org/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html.

[355]

Alan Rusbridger. Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now. Canongate, Edinburgh, 2018.

[356]

Matthew J. Salganik. Bit By Bit: Social Research in the Digital Age. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2018.

[357]

Matthew J. Salganik, Peter S. Dodds, and Duncan J. Watts. Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science, 311(5762):854–856, 2006. doi:10.1126/science.1121066.

[358]

Matthew J. Salganik and Duncan J. Watts. Leading the herd astray: an experimental study of self-fulfilling prophecies in an artificial cultural market. Social Psychology Quarterly, 71(4):338–355, 2008. doi:10.1177/019027250807100404.

[359]

Matthew J. Salganik and Duncan J. Watts. Web-based experiments for the study of collective social dynamics in cultural markets. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1(3):439–468, 2009. doi:10.1111/j.1756-8765.2009.01030.x.

[360]

Michael Scharkow, Frank Mangold, Sebastian Stier, and Johannes Breuer. How social network sites and other online intermediaries increase exposure to news. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(6):2761–2763, 2020. doi:10.1073/pnas.1918279117.

[361]

Rasmus Schmøkel and Michael Bossetta. FBAdLibrarian and Pykognition: open science tools for the collection and emotion detection of images in Facebook political ads with computer vision. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 19(1):118–128, 2022. doi:10.1080/19331681.2021.1928579.

[362]

Ralph Schroeder. Social Theory after the Internet: Media, Technology and Globalization. UCL Press, London, 2018.

[363]

Ralph Schroeder. Digital media and the entrenchment of right-wing populist agendas. Social Media + Society, 5(4):1–11, 2019. doi:10.1177/2056305119885328.

[364]

Ralph Schroeder. Digital media and the globalizing spread of populism. In Dal Yong Jin, editor, The Routledge Handbook of Digital Media and Globalization, pages 179–187. Routledge, New York, 2021.

[365]

Michael Schudson. The objectivity norm in american journalism. Journalism, 2(2):149–170, 2001. doi:10.1177/146488490100200201.

[366]

Jan Schwalbach and Christian Rauh. Collecting large-scale comparative text data on legislative debate. In Hanna Back, Marc Debus, and Jorge M. Fernandes, editors, The politics of legislative debate, pages 91–109. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2021. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198849063.001.0001.

[367]

Melissa Schwartzberg. Epistemic democracy and its challenges. Annual Review of Political Science, 18:187–203, 2015. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-110113-121908.

[368]

Carsten Schwemmer, Saïd Unger, and Raphael Heiberger. Automated image analysis for studying online behaviour. In Jan Skopek, editor, Research Handbook of Digital Sociology. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2022.

[369]

Armin Schäfer and Michael Zürn. Die demokratische Regression. Suhrkamp, Berlin, 2021.

[370]

Mike S. Schäfer and Hartmut Wessler. Öffentliche Kommunikation in Zeiten künstlicher Intelligenz. Publizistik, 65:307–331, 2020. doi:10.1007/s11616-020-00592-6.

[371]

James C. Scott. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1998.

[372]

Martin Scott, Mel Bunce, and Kate Wright. Foundation funding and the boundaries of journalism. Journalism Studies, 20(14):2034–2052, 2019. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2018.1556321.

[373]

Adam Segal. Huawei, 5G, and weaponized interdependence. In Daniel W. Drezner, Henry Farrell, and Abraham L. Newman, editors, The Uses and Abuses of Weaponized Interdependence, pages 149–168. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 2021.

[374]

Jaime E. Settle. Frenemies: How Social Media Polarizes America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018.

[375]

Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Harvard Business Review Press, Boston, MA, 1999.

[376]

Limor Shifman. Cross-cultural comparisons of user-generated content: an analytical framework. International Journal of Communication, 10:5644–5663, 2016.

[377]

Clay Shirky. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. The Penguin Press, New York, 2008.

[378]

Pamela J. Shoemaker and Stephen D. Reese. Mediating the Message in the 21st Century. Routledge, New York, 3 edition, 2014.

[379]

Pamela J. Shoemaker and Tim P. Vos. Gatekeeping theory. Routledge, New York, 2009.

[380]

John Sides and Lynn Vavreck. Obama's not-so-big data. Pacific Standard, January 21 2014. URL: http://www.psmag.com/navigation/politics-and-law/obamas-big-data-inconclusive-results-political-campaigns-72687/.

[381]

Julia Silge and David Robinson. Text Mining with R: A Tidy Approach. O'Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA, 2017.

[382]

Felix M. Simon. “We power democracy”: exploring the promises of the political data analytics industry. The Information Society, 35(3):158–169, 2019. doi:10.1080/01972243.2019.1582570.

[383]

Felix M. Simon and Ralph Schroeder. Big data goes to Hollywood: the emergence of big data as a tool in the American film industry. In Jeremy Hunsinger, Matthew M. Allen, and Lisbeth Klastrup, editors, Second International Handbook of Internet Research, pages 1–20. Springer, Dordrecht, 2019. doi:10.1007/978-94-024-1202-4_63-1.

[384]

Jimmy Soni. The Founders: The Story of Paypal and the Entrepreneurs Who Shaped Silicon Valley. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2022.

[385]

Sebastian Stier, Johannes Breuer, Pascal Siegers, and Kjerstin Thorson. Integrating survey data and digital trace data: key issues in developing an emerging field. Social Science Computer Review, 38(5):503–516, 2020. doi:10.1177/0894439319843669.

[386]

Sebastian Stier, Frank Mangold, Michael Scharkow, and Johannes Breuer. Post post-broadcast democracy? news exposure in the age of online intermediaries. American Political Science Review, 116(2):768–774, 2022. doi:10.1017/S0003055421001222.

[387]

Sebastian Stier, Lisa Posch, Arnim Bleier, and Markus Strohmaier. When populists become popular: Comparing Facebook use by the right-wing movement Pegida and German political parties. Information, Communication & Society, 20(9):1365–1388, 2017. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328519.

[388]

Brad Stone. The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. Little, Brown and Company, New York, 2013.

[389]

Brad Stone. The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World. Black Bay Books, New York, 2017.

[390]

Brad Stone. Amazon Unbound: Jeff Bezos and the Invention of a Global Empire. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2021.

[391]

Arkadiusz Stopczynski, Vedran Sekara, Piotr Sapiezynski, Andrea Cuttone, Mette My Madsen, Jakob Eg Larsen, and Sune Lehmann. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution. PLoS One, 9(4):e95978, 2014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095978.

[392]

Jennifer Stromer-Galley. On-line interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication, 50(4):111–132, 2000. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02865.x.

[393]

Jennifer Stromer-Galley. Presidential Campaigning in the Internet Age. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2 edition, 2019.

[394]

Nadine Strossen. Hate: Why we should resist it with free speech, not censorship. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.

[395]

Sandra González-Bailón Subhayan Mukerjee, Sílvia Majó-Vázquez. Networks of audience overlap in the consumption of digital news. Journal of Communication, 68(1):26–50, 2018. doi:10.1093/joc/jqx007.

[396]

Cass R. Sunstein. Republic.com. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001.

[397]

Yun Tai and King-wa Fu. Specificity, conflict, and focal point: a systematic investigation into social media censorship in China. Journal of Communication, 70(6):842–867, 2020. doi:10.1093/joc/jqaa032.

[398]

Yla R. Tausczik and James W. Pennebaker. The psychological meaning ofwords: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(1):24–54, 2010. doi:10.1177/0261927X09351676.

[399]

Charles Taylor. Modernity and the rise of the public sphere. In Grethe B. Peterson, editor, The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, pages 203–260. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1993. URL: https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/t/Taylor93.pdf.

[400]

Charles Taylor. Liberal politics and the public sphere. In Philosophical Arguments, pages 257–288. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995.

[401]

Frederick W. Taylor. The Principles of Scientific Management. Harper & Brothers, New York, 1911.

[402]

Elgar Teo and King-wa Fu. A novel systematic approach of constructing protests repertoires from social media: comparing the roles of organizational and non-organizational actors in social movement. Journal of Computational Social Science volume, 4(2):787–812, 2021. doi:10.1007/s42001-021-00101-3.

[403]

Kathleen Thelen. Regulating Uber: the politics of the platform economy in Europe and the United States. Perspectives on Politics, 16(4):938–953, 2018. doi:10.1017/S1537592718001081.

[404]

Yannis Theocharis and Andreas Jungherr. Computational social science and the study of political communication. Political Communication, 38(1–2):1–22, 2021. doi:10.1080/10584609.2020.1833121.

[405]

Yannis Theocharis, Will Lowe, Jan W. van Deth, and Gema García-Albacete. Using twitter to mobilize protest action: online mobilization patterns and action repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, and Aganaktismenoi movements. Information, Communication & Society, 18(2):202–220, 2015. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2014.948035.

[406]

Yannis Theocharis, Silia Vitoratou, and Javier Sajuria. Civil society in times of crisis: understanding collective action dynamics in digitally-enabled volunteer networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(5):248–265, 2017. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12194.

[407]

Clive Thompson. Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World. Penguin Press, New York, 2019.

[408]

Kaitlyn Tiffany. Everything I Need I Get from You: How Fangirls Created the Internet As We Know It. Farrat, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2022.

[409]

Charles Tilly. Democracy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.

[410]

Florian Toepfl and Eunike Piwoni. Public spheres in interaction: comment sections of news websites as counterpublic spaces. Journal of Communication, 65(3):465–488, 2015. doi:10.1111/jcom.12156.

[411]

Joe Trippi. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised: Democracy, the Internet, and the Overthrow of Everything. Regan Books, New York, 2004.

[412]

Edward Tse. China's Disruptors: How Alibaba, Xiaomi, Tencent and Other Companies are Changing the Rules of Business. Portfolio/Penguin, New York, 2015.

[413]

Joshua A. Tucker, Yannis Theocharis, Margaret E. Roberts, and Pablo Barberá. From liberation to turmoil: social media and democracy. Journal of Democracy, 28(4):46–59, 2017.

[414]

Zeynep Tufekci. Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2017.

[415]

Fred Turner. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2006.

[416]

Ted Underwood. Distant Horizons: Digital Evidence and Literary Change. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2019.

[417]

Nikki Usher. News for the Rich, White, and Blue: How Place and Power Distort American Journalism. Columbia University Press, New York, 2021.

[418]

Stanley Wasserman and Katherine Faust. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511815478.

[419]

Duncan J. Watts. Everything Is Obvious: How Common Sense Fails Us. Random House, New York, 2011.

[420]

James G. Webster, Patricia F. Phalen, and Lawrence W. Lichty. Ratings Analysis: Audience Measurement and Analytics. Routledge, New York, 4 edition, 2014.

[421]

Nils B. Weidmann. Data Management for Social Scientists: From Files to Datasets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2022.

[422]

Chris Wells, Dhavan V. Shah Jon C. Pevehouse, JungHwan Yang, Ayellet Pelled, Frederick Boehm, Josephine Lukito, Shreenita Ghosh, and Jessica L. Schmidt. How Trump drove coverage to the nomination: hybrid media campaigning. Political Communication, 33(4):669–676, 2016. doi:10.1080/10584609.2016.1224416.

[423]

Tom Wengraf. Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi-Structured Methods. SAGE, London, 2001.

[424]

Hartmut Wessler. Habermas and the Media. Polity Press, Cambridge, 2018.

[425]

Reeves Wiedeman. Times change. New York Magazine, November 9 2020. URL: https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/11/inside-the-new-york-times-heated-reckoning-with-itself.html.

[426]

Bruce A. Williams and Michael X. Delli Carpini. After Broadcast News: Media Regimes, Democracy, and the New Information Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511846366.

[427]

Nora Webb Williams, Andreu Casas, and John D. Wilkerson. Images as Data for Social Science Research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2020. doi:10.1017/9781108860741.

[428]

Leah Cathryn Windsor. Advancing interdisciplinary work in computational communication science. Political Communication, 38(1–2):182–191, 2021. doi:10.1080/10584609.2020.1765915.

[429]

Adrian Wooldridge. Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse. Harper Collins, New York, 2011.

[430]

Kate Wright, Martin Scott, and Mel Bunce. Foundation-funded journalism, philanthrocapitalism and tainted donors. Journalism Studies, 20(5):675–695, 2019. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2017.1417053.

[431]

Alexander Wuttke. Why too many political science findings cannot be trusted and what we can do about it: a review of meta-scientific research and a call for academic reform. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 60(1):1–19, 2019. doi:10.1007/s11615-018-0131-7.

[432]

John H. Zammito. The second life of the “public sphere”: on charisma and routinization in the history of a concept. In Christian J. Emden and David Midgley, editors, Changing Perceptions of the Public Sphere, pages 90–119. Berghahn Books, New York, 2012.

[433]

Yini Zhang, Dhavan Shah, Jordan Foley, Aman Abhishek, Josephine Lukito, Jiyoun Suk, Sang Jung Kim, Zhongkai Sun, Jon Pevehouse, and Christine Garlough. Whose lives matter? mass shootings and social media discourses of sympathy and policy, 2012–2014. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 24(4):182–202, 2019. doi:10.1093/jcmc/zmz009.

[434]

Marc Ziegele, Timo Breiner, and Oliver Quiring. What creates interactivity in online news discussions? an exploratory analysis of discussion factors in user comments on news items. Journal of Communication, 64(6):1111–1138, December 2014. doi:10.1111/jcom.12123.

[435]

Mark Zuckerberg. I believe the most important thing we can do is work to bring people closer together. Facebook, 2017. URL: https://www.facebook.com/notes/393134628500376/.

[436]

Hans IJzerman, Neil A. Lewis Jr., Andrew K. Przybylski, Netta Weinstein, Lisa DeBruine, Stuart J. Ritchie, Simine Vazire, Patrick S. Forscher, Richard D. Morey, James D. Ivory, and Farid Anvari. Use caution when applying behavioural science to policy. Nature Human Behavior, 4:1092–1094, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-00990-w.

[437]

Open Science Collaboration. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251):943, 2015. doi:10.1126/science.aac4716.

[438]

Jay J. Van Bavel, Katherine Baicker, Paulo S. Boggio, Valerio Capraro, Aleksandra Cichocka, Mina Cikara, Molly J. Crockett, Alia J. Crum, Karen M. Douglas, James N. Druckman, John Drury, Oeindrila Dube, Naomi Ellemers, Eli J. Finkel, James H. Fowler, Michele Gelfand, Shihui Han, S. Alexander Haslam, Jolanda Jetten, Shinobu Kitayama, Dean Mobbs, Lucy E. Napper, Dominic J. Packer, Gordon Pennycook, Ellen Peters, Richard E. Petty, David G. Rand, Stephen D. Reicher, Simone Schnall, Azim Shariff, Linda J. Skitka, Sandra Susan Smith, Cass R. Sunstein, Nassim Tabri, Joshua A. Tucker, Sander van der Linden, Paul van Lange, Kim A. Weeden, Michael J. A. Wohl, Jamil Zaki, Sean R. Zion, and Robb Wille. Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behavior, 4:460–471, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z.

[439]

José van Dijck, Thomas Poell, and Martijn de Waal. The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190889760.001.0001.